Pashto and Dari are the two official languages of Afghanistan. While both are part of the Indo-European language family and use the Arabic alphabet, they are not mutually intelligible. Pashto is considered the national language of Afghanistan and the national anthem is written in it, but Dari is the more commonly spoken language. Almost all Pashto speakers learn Dari as their second language. Dari was the only language used in the royal courts in Afghanistan until the 1920’s when King Amanullah Khan promoted Pashto as a marker of ethnic identity and nationalism during the fight for independence from the British. Up until that point Pashto was primarily spoken by the Pashtun tribes as their native language.