The “Mother of the Great Khans”, Sorghahtani Beki ruled as Regent in Mongolia and Nothern China after the death of her husband, Tolui, Genghis Khan’s youngest son. Speculation suggests that she refused a marriage offer from Guyuk (Ogodei’s son) to keep the throne for her sons. She exercised her power as a mother to raise her sons to be great leaders, encouraging them to learn to read and speak foreign languages, even though she was illiterate. She was a Nestorian Christian and raised her sons to also be religiously tolerant. There is some suspicion that she had Güyük killed when he tried to undermine her power as Regent. She was in power until her son Möngke took over. She died in 1252. In all, she was politically savvy and a powerful woman in Mongol, and world, history.
Möngke Khan: 1251-1259
Kublai Khan: 1259-1294, Eastern Mongol Empire, Yuan dynasty
Hulagu Khan: 1262-1265, Ilkhanate dynasty, (Central Asia)